- 1 week ago
S Brian Wilson
Freedom is the ability to live actively and spontaneously without harming others or nature, deeply knowing that an injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. It takes corrective responsibility when harms from one’s actions are made known.
- 1 week ago
4 large very ripe bananas mashed
1 beaten egg
½ cup sugar
⅓ cup melted butter
1½ cups all-purpose flour
1 tsp baking powder
1 tsp baking soda
½ teaspoon salt
½ cup AP flour
¼ cup brown sugar
½ stick cold butter
¼ teaspoon cinnamon
Place all ingredients into a bowl and mix with a fork until crumbly
Preheat oven to 350F
Mash bananas and add the lightly beaten egg, sugar and butter and mix well to combine.
Mix the flour, baking soda, baking powder and salt and add to the banana egg mixture and mix until nearly all the flour is mixed in.
Pour into cupcake pans and add streusel.
Bake for about 20 minutes.
Uh. NOM.Source: kitchensinkblog
- 1 week ago
- 2 weeks ago
- 4 weeks ago
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have discovered that a substance called Vacquinol-1 makes cells from glioblastoma, the most aggressive type of brain tumour, literally explode. When mice were given the substance, which can be given in tablet form, tumour growth was reversed and survival was prolonged. The findings are published in the journal Cell.
The established treatments that are available for glioblastoma include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. But even if this treatment is given the average survival is just 15 months. It is therefore critical to find better treatments for malignant brain tumours.
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet and colleagues at Uppsala University have discovered an entirely new mechanism to kill tumour cells in glioblastoma. Researchers in an initial stage have exposed tumour cells to a wide range of molecules. If the cancer cells died, the molecule was considered of interest for further studies, which initially applied to over 200 kinds of molecules. Following extensive studies, a single molecule has been identified as being of particular interest. The researchers wanted to find out why it caused cancer cell death.
It was found that the molecule gave the cancer cells an uncontrolled vacuolization, a process in which the cell carries substances from outside the cell into its interior. This carrying process is made via the vacuoles, which can roughly be described as blisters or bags consisting of cell membranes. The process is similar to what was behind last year’s Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine, the discovery that describes how cellular vesicles move things from the interior of the cell to its surface.
Cell membranes collapsed
When cancer cells were filled with a large amount of vacuoles, the cell membranes, the outer wall of the cell, collapsed and the cell simply exploded and necrotized.
“This is an entirely new mechanism for cancer treatment. A possible medicine based on this principle would therefore attack the glioblastoma in an entirely new way. This principle may also work for other cancer diseases, we have not really explored this yet,” says Patrik Ernfors, professor of tissue biology at the Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics at Karolinska Institutet.
Researchers made mice that had human glioblastoma cells transplanted ingest the substance for five days. The average survival was about 30 days for the control group that did not receive the substance. Of those who received the substance six of eight mice were still alive after 80 days. The study was then considered of such interest that the scientific journal wanted to publish the article immediately.
“We now want to try to take this discovery in basic research through preclinical development and all the way to the clinic. The goal is to get into a phase 1 trial,” says Patrik Ernfors.
- 4 weeks ago
The human sense of smell does not get the respect it deserves, new research suggests. In an experiment led by Andreas Keller, of Rockefeller’s Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior, researchers tested volunteers’ ability to distinguish between complex mixtures of scents. Based on the sensitivity of these people’s noses and brains, the team calculated the human sense of smell can detect more than 1 trillion odor mixtures, far more discrete stimuli than previous smell studies have estimated.
The existing generally accepted number is just 10,000, says Leslie Vosshall, Robert Chemers Neustein Professor and head of the laboratory. “Everyone in the field had the general sense that this number was ludicrously small, but Andreas was the first to put the number to a real scientific test,” Vosshall says.
In fact, even 1 trillion may be understating it, says Keller. “The message here is that we have more sensitivity in our sense of smell than for which we give ourselves credit. We just don’t pay attention to it and don’t use it in everyday life,” he says.
The quality of an odor has multiple dimensions, because the odors we encounter in real life are composed of complex mixes of molecules. For instance, the characteristic scent of rose has 275 components, but only a small percentage of those dominate the perceived smell. That makes odor much more difficult to study than vision and hearing, which require us to detect variations in a single dimension. For comparison, researchers estimate the number of colors we can distinguish at between 2.3 and 7.5 million and audible tones at about 340,000.
To overcome this complexity, Keller combined odors and asked volunteers whether they could distinguish between mixtures with some components in common. “Our trick is we use mixtures of odor molecules, and we use the percentage of overlap between two mixtures to measure the sensitivity of a person’s sense of smell,” Keller says. To create his mixtures, Keller drew upon 128 odor molecules responsible for scents such as orange, anise and spearmint. He mixed these in combinations of 10, 20 and 30 with different proportions of components in common. The volunteers received three vials, two of which contained identical mixes, and they were asked to pick out the odd one.
This approach was inspired by previous work at the Weizmann Institute in Israel, in which researchers combined odors at similar intensities to create neutral smelling “olfactory white.” In that experiment and in Keller’s study, the researchers were interested in the perception of odor qualities, such as fishy, floral or musky — not their intensity. But since intensity can interfere with the perceived qualities, both had to account for it.
The results, published this week in Science, show that while individual volunteers’ performance varied greatly, on average they could tell the difference between mixtures containing as much as 51 percent of the same components. Once the mixes shared more than half of their components, fewer volunteers could tell the difference between them. This was true for mixes of 10, 20 and 30 odors.
By analyzing the data, the researchers could calculate the total number of distinguishable mixtures.
“It turns out that the resolution of the olfactory system is not extraordinary – you need to change a fair fraction of the components before the change can be reliably detected by more than 50 percent of the subjects,” says collaborator Marcelo O. Magnasco, head of the Laboratory of Mathematical Physics at Rockefeller. “However, because the number of combinations is quite literally astronomical, even after accounting for this limitation the total number of distinguishable odor combinations is quite large.” The 1 trillion estimate is almost certainly too low, the researchers say, because there are many, many more odor molecules in the real world that can be mixed in many more ways.
Keller theorizes that our ancestors had much more use and appreciation for our sense of smell than we do. Humans’ upright posture lifted our noses far from the ground where most smells originate, and more recently, conveniences such as refrigerators and daily showers, have effectively limited odors in the modern world. “This could explain our attitude that smell is unimportant, compared to hearing and vision,” he says.
Nevertheless, the sense of smell remains closely linked to human behavior, and studying it can tell us a lot about how our brains process complex information. The results of this study are a step toward an elusive quantitative science of odor perception that can help drive further research, Keller says.
Interesting. :)Source: neurosciencestuff
- 4 weeks ago
Art? Ocean animals? Or both? Check out these amazing photos of our South American sea nettles, from staff photographer Randy Wilder. We grew them behind the scenes from tiny ephyrae (babies), and are the first aquarium ever to display them! Now in the Jellies Experience.
Best animal ever.Source: montereybayaquarium
- 4 weeks ago